Albemarle Cady, soldier, born in New Hampshire, about 1809. He was graduated at the United States military academy in 1829. Joining the 6th infantry, he served on garrison and frontier duty until 1838, when he served against the Indians in Florida until 1842, being promoted captain 7 July, 1838. In the war with Mexico he was at the siege of Vera Cruz and in the battles of Cerro Gordo, Churubusco, and Molino del Rey. In this last engage-merit he was wounded, and for his conduct was brevetted major. He accompanied the expedition against the Sioux Indians in 1855, and was in the action at Blue-Water, Dakota, 3 September of that year. On 27 January, 1857, he was promoted major. At the beginning of the civil war he was on duty on the Pacific coast, and remained there until 1864, when he was for a time in command of the draft-rendezvous at New Haven, Connecticut He was retired 18 May, 1864, for disability resulting from long and faithful service, and received the brevet of brigadier-general United States A., 13 March, 1865.
The District of Oregon was a Union Army command department formed during the American Civil War. The district was part of the independent Department of the Pacific reconstituted by consolidating the Departments of California and Oregon, which was created on January 15, 1861 when the Army was reorganized. The district was created the same day, and comprised the same territory as the former Department of Oregon, the state of Oregon (except for the areas of the Rogue River and Umpqua River in Southern Oregon) and Washington Territory, with headquarters at Fort Vancouver in Washington Territory. On March 3, 1865 the district included Idaho Territory after it was formed from the eastern part of Washington Territory. On March 14, 1865, the District of Oregon was extended to include the entire state of Oregon.
District of Oregon commanders
- Colonel George Wright, January 15, 1861 - September 13, 1861.
- Colonel Benjamin L. Beall, September 13, 1861 - October 23, 1861.
- Lieutenant Colonel Albemarle Cady, October 23, 1861 - May 5, 1862
- Colonel Justus Steinberger May 5, 1862 - July 7, 1862
- Brigadier General Benjamin Alvord, July 7, 1862 - March 23, 1865
- Colonel Reuben F. Maury, March 23, 1865 - June 27, 1865
On July 27, 1865 the Military Division of the Pacific was created under Major General Henry W. Halleck, replacing the Department of the Pacific. It consisted of the Department of the Columbia replacing the District of Oregon and the Department of California. George Wright, now a U. S. Army Brigadier General, was assigned to command the new Department of the Columbia.
Location: 20 miles east of Barstow on Mojave River and about 5 miles north of Newberry Springs in San Bernardino County.
Phone Number: 760-257-0900 Map: Directional Map (PDF)
Access: East from Barstow on Interstate 15 to Harvard Road, south to Mojave Trail Road (a dirt road), turn east to headquarters. From Newberry Springs and Hwy 40 take Newberry Road north to Valley Center Road, east to Harvard Road, then north to Mojave Trail Road.
Description: 1,870 acres of desert riparian habitat, consisting of screwbean mesquite, tamarisk, willow and cottonwood trees, saltgrass, saltbush, cattails along the Mojave River, which passes through the center of the wildlife area. Elevation ranges from 1,680'-1,760'. Habitat for Mojave tui chub, hawks, songbirds and shorebirds.
Historically the site became known as Camp Cady in 1860 when the U.S. military established a base camp to suppress Piute Indian attacks on wagon trains. The base was named Camp Cady in honor of Major Albemarle Cady of the 6th Infantry at Fort Yuma. The fort was strategically located along the road to Fort Mojave and close to the Salt Lake Trail which crossed the desert to Las Vegas, Nevada. Remnants of the fort can still be seen about one mile from the headquarters buildings. Still standing near the wildlife area headquarters are mud-chinked log cabins dating from 1900s. Volunteers from Quail Unlimited are onsite as caretakers of the buildings and grounds. http://www.dfg.ca.gov/lands/wa/region6/campcady.html
Albemarle Cady: Thirty years on the western frontier, interrupted by combat in the Mexican War; the wounds received there would more or less sideline him from Union service during the War between the States. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Register/1829/home.html
Located about 20 miles east of Barstow, San Bernardino County, Camp Cady was posted on April 14, 1860, in compliance with an order by General N. .S. Clarke, by Major Carleton with Company K, 1st Dragoons, aggregating 80 men, near the Mojave River Road. The encampment was called Camp Cady for Major Albemarle Cady, 6th Infantry, then in command of Fort Yuma. For three months the Dragoons quartered themselves in temporary shelters of brush and mud or dugouts similar to those used later by the region's miners.
The makeshift quarters were finally replaced by permanent structures built by Army regulars. 'The post had a parade ground 300 yards square, with the buildings arranged along three of its sides. The buildings were of adobe, floored and shingle roofed, plastered out side and plastered and whitewashed inside. The officers' quarters was the only structure with ceilings. Camp Cady served as the base for a whole series of camps, redoubts, and forts along the Old Government Road to Fort Mojave and the Salt Lake Road, with campaigns waged against the Paiutes and Shoshones. The post was abandoned on April 24, 1871.
History by Colonel Herbert M. Hart, USMC (retired) Executive Director, Council on America's Military Past
"Half a days pull through heavy sandy and gravelly wastes brought us to this God-forsaken Botany Bay of a place," wrote Elliott Cones when he visited Camp Cady in 1865, "the meanest I ever saw for a military station, where four officers and a handful of men manage to exist in some unexplained way in mud and brush hovels."
The comparison of Cady to the notorious Australian convict colony was apt, although not calculated to raise the morale of the troopers manning the desolate outpost. It had been built in early 1860 by then Major Carleton at the site of a "Depot on the Mojave," a temporary camp of the preceding September.
Carleton's men had no intention of staying at the spot and were content to live in a scattering of adobe and brush huts, half underground dugout style. There was a central building which could lay some claim to fortress like attributes, a 40-foot adobe square that stood man-high and was surrounded by a ditch.
From here, Carleton vigorously scoured the countryside for traces of Indian marauders. Surgeon Jonathan Letterman, the originator of the Army's ambulance service and after whom Letterman Army Medical Center was named was with Carleton at the time.
An officer "killed two Indians on the 19th in the mountains southwest of our camp," Letterman later wrote. "In the affray two men were seriously wounded, one in the neck and one in the abdomen, by the Indians. Both are doing well, but the one wounded in the abdomen is not out of danger yet." The Los Angeles Star carried news of a Carleton expedition in May, 1860 in which he destroyed a Piute rancheria 50 miles from Cady, bringing away several trophies highly prized by the Indians." A civilian teamster was missing "and it supposed that he was killed by the Indians. These Piutes must get a thorough drubbing."
Rather than a drubbing, Carleton held a peace conference at Camp Cady with 24 Piutes spokesmen, one of them a woman. He told them that the white man and his "Great Father" was powerful and wanted to be a friend of the Indians. The chiefs agreed, gave their pledges, took their gifts, and, for the moment, keep the peace. Camp Cady was abandoned.
Two years later the post was temporarily reactivated, but this time as an early warning outpost against feared Confederate attack. Orders were issued on April 5, 1862 for an 11-man detail to to to Camp Cady "and there shelter yourself and party in a field-work which was thrown up at that point by Colonel Carleton two years since. It is reported that there is a large body of men east of Beale's Crossing on the Colorado River, and it is possible, though not probable, that they will attempt to enter California by the Mojave route."
"The object of sending you to Camp Cady is to give the colonel commanding timely notice, if such be their purpose, and to send to him any intelligence which you may receive of their movements. By putting your men and animals inside of the work, spies or a small number of scouts from such a party, coming up the river, would not know of your presence until they come so close that their escape would be impossible."
The officer commanding the detail was told to stay out 11 days, "when if you receive no intelligence of the body of men alluded to above, you will return by easy marches to your proper station."
A month later, the patrol was back. It had stayed at Cady from April 14 to 24 "seeing and hearing of nothing unusual." Enroute they had heard of wagon loads of powder and small groups of armed men moving on other routes, but their direction was generally northeasterly, and did not seem to pose a threat to California.
The Indian depredations finally caused Cady to return to the official orders on July 26, 1864. Captain John C. Cremony and his B Company of the Second California Cavalry were ordered to patrol from Cady to Rock Springs and "to protect travel, clear the road of thieving, troublesome Indians." A year later, the murder of two men 18 miles from the post, and activities of Indians who "come down from the mountains on either side of the road, steal stock, rob houses, lay forced tribute on travelers, threaten lives" forced the reopening of Camp Cady by a company of cavalry.
They were told to maintain a camp guard of 15 men. "The balance of the men will patrol the road constantly ... keeping it clear ... and particularly to keep Indians away from the watering places," was the guidance to the first detail sent out in March, 1865.
While reestablishing the post, three soldiers were wounded and government stores burned in an Indian attack. The camp was officially reactivated on April 23, 1865, when Company C, 4th California Volunteer Infantry arrived. They manned Cady until July, 1866, rebuilding its collapsed buildings. "The quarters are made entirely of brush and are intended for shelter from the sun only." wrote an observer.
On January 10, 1866, Inspector Brevet Brigadier General C. A. Whittier visited the post. "Great credit is due to Captain West for the construction of neat and comfortable houses with the means at his disposal save the adobe and at no expense to the government Whittier reported, "for the cleanliness and good order prevailing through the camp and for the care of his command and general good administration of affairs."
The following day, the Cady garrison was officially commended by General McDowell for building 35 adobes at the post.
An attempt was made to abandon the camp in 1866, but public and political pressure was too great. Hardly was the post back in business again when a party of Indians approached the fort in a hostile demonstration. Twenty troopers charged after them. Five soldiers were killed in an ambush set up in the dense undergrowth along the river.
In the aftermath, a posse arrived from San Bernardino to reinforce the fort and chase the Indians, but the enemy had disappeared.
Attacks continued on the road. With requirements for pursuit patrols and train escorts, upwards of 120 men manned the fort at times.
In 1868 the post was moved a half mile to the west. Here was sufficient level ground for a parade field, something missing at the first cramped site. A more formal post was built in a rectangle, but a year later the garrison was cut to a token force. By this time, the trail was known as the "Old Government Road" for it had been supplanted by a more direct and safer route.
In 1871 the buildings were sold to civilian men. The mission was finished and the unsentimental Army no longer had any use for shanties. reported to "be of adobe and . . . of little value."
TO GET THERE:24 miles north of Barstow take Harvard Road from I-15, go south 0.8 miles and turn left at Cherokee Road. Go East 2.6 miles to end of fence, South 0.75 mile to north bank of the Mojave River
The original Camp Cady "fortress" stood next to Government Road, was photographed in 1860's by R. D'Heureux. Army inspector in 1866 was not enchanted by desert area. "There is little probability of the post being long occupied," he reported. The country for miles around is not of such a character to induce any sane man to settle... The country is a desert and to my mind there is no possibility of it ever being settled." He found three officers and 63 enlisted men, noted district commander had "wisely" directed reducing post to 15 men to preserve the buildings and supplies enroute to Arizona-but this token force was not long maintained. Fortunately post quartermaster had no outstanding debts because he had only $2.50 on hand. Inspector recommended that meat ration be increased to make up for the fact that 450-pound cattle bought in Wilmington lost 100 pounds by the time they got to Cady.
The Camp Cady site today is bare of evidences of early use, flood in 1938 having washed away all adobe traces. Barracks and sutler store are in ruins, used for stock purposes; rocks mark hospital site. John Fremont was at site in 1844 and prepared for desert trip here. Three fatigued cattle were killed and their meat jerked. During stay, two Mexican refugees told him of being ambushed by 100 Indians at Resting Springs, to the north on the Las Vegas-Salt Lake City trail. http://mojavedesert.net/military/camp-cady.html
"Located about 20 miles east of Barstow, San Bernardino County, Camp Cady was posted on April 14, 1860, in compliance with an order by General N. .S. Clarke, by Major Carleton with Company K, 1st Dragoons, aggregating 80 men, near the Mojave River Road. The encampment was called Camp Cady for Major Albemarle Cady, 6th Infantry, then in command of Fort Yuma. For three months the Dragoons quartered themselves in temporary shelters of brush and mud or dugouts similar to those used later by the region's miners.
"The makeshift quarters were finally replaced by permanent structures built by Army regulars. 'The post had a parade ground 300 yards square, with the buildings arranged along three of its sides. The buildings were of adobe, floored and shingle roofed, plastered out side and plastered and whitewashed inside. The officers' quarters was the only structure with ceilings. Camp Cady served as the base for a whole series of camps, redoubts, and forts along the Old Government Road to Fort Mojave and the Salt Lake Road, with campaigns waged against the Paiutes and Shoshones. The post was abandoned on April 24, 1871." www.militarymuseum.org/CpCady.html
1. ^ The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume L, CHAPTER LXII, pp. 2-6. eHistory at The Ohio State University 2. ^ The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Volume L, CHAPTER LXII 3. ^ David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, pg.841 4. ^ Official Records of the War of the Rebellion , SERIES I--VOLUME XLVI, GENERAL ORDERS No. 118. June 27, 1865, Military Division of the United States After The Civil War 5. ^ A two-story blockhouse built to protect the Siletz Indian Agency. It was a subpost of Fort Hoskins. Originally called Yaquina Bay Blockhouse (1856 - 1858) located at the mouth of the Yaquina River near South Beach. It was dismantled and floated upriver in 1858. Located at Siletz, Oregon. 6. ^ Garrisoned by the Oregon Volunteer Cavalry to observe Confederate sympathizers in nearby Jacksonville, Oregon. Located one-half mile west of Phoenix, Oregon. Possibly also known as Camp Phoenix. 7. ^ Charles Henry Carey, History of Oregon, The Pioneer Historical Publishing Company, Portland, 1922, pg. 663. Near A temporary Civil War encampment for the Oregon Volunteers, located two miles north of Oregon City, Oregon. The entire garrison moved to Camp Clackamas. 8. ^ A temporary state militia post that lasted only one month. Located at the mouth of the Clackamas River about one mile north of Oregon City. Replaced Camp Barlow. 9. ^ Post at Cape Disappoinment was at the north mouth of the Columbia River, Washington Territory, later renamed Fort Cape Disappointment 1864 and Fort Canby in 1875. 10. ^ Officially known as Post at Grand Ronde Indian Agency, it was a temporary outpost of Fort Yamhill built by Oregon Volunteers at Grand Ronde, Oregon. 11. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 672. Located on the south shore of the mouth of the Columbia River. Later named Fort Stevens. 12. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. On Horse Creek in the Alvord Valley, east of the Steen Mountain Range 13. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671 Located slightly east of Camps Maury and Polk. 14. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. This camp, named for Oregon's representative in Congress at that time, was established early in 1864, near the mouth of Jordan Creek, 330 miles from Walla Walla, and was the center of operations in Southeastern Oregon for some time afterward. 15. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671 Near Canyon City, on the headwaters of John Day River. 16. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. On the Deschutes River near the mouth of Crooked River. 17. ^ A Civil War training camp once located in Salem, Oregon, at the state fairgrounds, present-day 17th Street and Silverton Road. 18. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. At the Willow Creek crossing of the Canyon City - Boise Road, south of Baker City. 19. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. On Silver Creek. 20. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. On the Snake River, at the site of Old Fort Hall in S. Idaho Territory. 21. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671 East of Canyon City, on the road to Colfax. 22. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671 In the Jordan Valley, east of the Owyhee River. 23. ^ IDAHO STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY REFERENCE SERIES, CAMP LYON, Number 357 July 16, 1965 24. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. On the Deschutes River near the mouth of Crooked River. 25. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671,674. On the Snake River, near Salmon Falls, in S. Idaho Territory. 26. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 674. Located on the on Silvies River, north of Malheur Lake. 27. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. North of Harney Lake. A temporary state militia encampment on the Silvies River, possibly to the south of Burns, Oregon. . Originally Adobe Camp (1865), a 25-yard square sod-walled post, was located here before being replaced after only two weeks. 28. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. Located east of Warner Lakes. A Federal camp originally located 20 miles east of Warner (Hart) Lake. It was moved in 1867 29. ^ Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. Located west of Warner Lakes.