Thomas Tillotson (1750 – May 5, 1832) was an American physician and politician.
Born in Maryland circa 1750, Tillotson received a thorough education, studied medicine, and practiced. In 1776, he was commissioned as a First lieutenant in the Maryland Militia, and served during the American Revolutionary War. He was appointed by Congress as a physician and surgeon general of the Northern Department of the Continental Army in 1780, and served until the close of the war. Afterward, he settled in Rhinebeck, New York and engaged in the practice of medicine.
In 1779, he married Margaret Livingston (1749–1823, sister of Chancellor Robert R. Livingston). Their children included Robert, John, and Janette.
A Federalist, he represented Dutchess County in the New York State Assembly in 1788. In 1790, State Senator Anthony Hoffman died, and Tillotson was elected to fill the vacancy. He was a member of the State Senate from 1791 to 1799, and served as a member of the Council of Appointment in 1791.
He was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the 7th United States Congress in 1800, but resigned on August 10, 1801, before Congress met, to become Secretary of State of New York. He remained in this office until March 15, 1806, and again from February 16, 1807 to February 1, 1808.
He died in Rhinebeck on May 5, 1832 was buried in the Livingston family vault in the cemetery at the Dutch Reformed Church in Rhinebeck.
- Year Book of the Dutchess County Historical Society, p. 35.
- "Pension Application for Thomas Tillotson".
- The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, p. 247.
- The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, p. 289.
- "Patriots of the American Revolution Interred in the Rhinebeck Reformed Church Cemetery", p. 4.
- Year Book of the Dutchess County Historical Society. 13. Poughkeepsie, NY: Dutchess County Historical Society. 1928.
- Hamilton, Alexander (1965). The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. 9. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
- Jefferson, Thomas (2008). The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. 35. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13773-5.
- "Pension Application for Thomas Tillotson" (PDF). revwarny.com. St. Johnsville, NY: Revolutionary War in NY State. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
- Hermans, Sarah K. (May 1, 2005). "Patriots of the American Revolution Interred in the Rhinebeck Reformed Church Cemetery" (PDF). *NorthernDutchessDAR.org. Chancellor Livingston Chapter, National Society of Daughters of the American Revolution.
- The Papers of Robert Morris, 1781-1784: April 16-July 20, 1782, by Robert Morris
- Rhinebeck, by Michael Frazier
- Thomas Tillotson at Find a Grave